Chamber of Commerce Country Factsheet Last update: 10.08.2017
Your advisors at the Chamber of Commerce
- Edith Stein+352423939482
- Daniel Sahr+352423939313
Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and Shah Mohammad Reza PAHLAVI was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces led by Ayatollah Ruhollah KHOMEINI established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to commonly as the Supreme Leader who, according to the constitution, is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts - a popularly elected 86-member body of clerics. US-Iranian relations became strained when a group of Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran in November 1979 and held embassy personnel hostages until mid-January 1981. The US cut off diplomatic relations with Iran in April 1980. During the period 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian military forces. Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US, UN, and EU economic sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement in terrorism and concerns over possible military dimensions of its nuclear program. Following the election of reformer Hojjat ol-Eslam Mohammad KHATAMI as president in 1997 and a reformist Majles (legislature) in 2000, a campaign to foster political reform in response to popular dissatisfaction was initiated. The movement floundered as conservative politicians, supported by the Supreme Leader, unelected institutions of authority like the Council of Guardians, and the security services reversed and blocked reform measures while increasing security repression.
Starting with nationwide municipal elections in 2003 and continuing through Majles elections in 2004, conservatives reestablished control over Iran's elected government institutions, which culminated with the August 2005 inauguration of hardliner Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD as president. His controversial reelection in June 2009 sparked nationwide protests over allegations of electoral fraud. These protests were quickly suppressed, and the political opposition that arose as a consequence of AHMADI-NEJAD's election was repressed. Deteriorating economic conditions due primarily to government mismanagement and international sanctions prompted at least two major economically based protests in July and October 2012, but Iran's internal security situation remained stable. President AHMADI-NEJAD's independent streak angered regime establishment figures, including the Supreme Leader, leading to conservative opposition to his agenda for the last year of his presidency, and an alienation of his political supporters. In June 2013 Iranians elected a moderate conservative cleric Dr. Hasan Fereidun RUHANI to the presidency. He is a longtime senior member in the regime, but has made promises of reforming society and Iran's foreign policy. The UN Security Council has passed a number of resolutions calling for Iran to suspend its uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities and comply with its IAEA obligations and responsibilities, and in July 2015 Iran and the five permanent members, plus Germany (P5+1) signed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) under which Iran agreed to restrictions on its nuclear program in exchange for sanctions relief.
Source: The CIA World Factbook - Iran
Iran's economy is marked by statist policies, inefficiencies, and reliance on oil and gas exports, but Iran also possesses significant agricultural, industrial, and service sectors. The Iranian government directly owns and operates hundreds of state-owned enterprises and indirectly controls many companies affiliated with the country's security forces. Distortions - including inflation, price controls, subsidies, and a banking system holding billions of dollars of non-performing loans - weigh down the economy, undermining the potential for private-sector-led growth.
Private sector activity includes small-scale workshops, farming, some manufacturing, and services, in addition to medium-scale construction, cement production, mining, and metalworking. Significant informal market activity flourishes and corruption is widespread.
Fiscal and monetary constraints, following the expansion of international sanctions in 2012 on Iran's Central Bank and oil exports, significantly reduced Iran's oil revenue, forced government spending cuts, and sparked a sharp currency depreciation. Iran’s economy contracted for the first time in two decades during both 2012 and 2013, but growth resumed in 2014. Iran's stock market plunged between 2013 and 2015. Iran continues to suffer from high unemployment and underemployment. Lack of job opportunities has prompted many educated Iranian youth to seek employment overseas, resulting in a significant "brain drain."
Subject descriptor 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Gross domestic product, constant prices 4.343 0.380 4.472 4.066 4.123 Gross domestic product, current prices 414.895 390.039 412.304 438.334 471.145 Gross domestic product per capita, current prices 5,287.290 4,907.619 5,124.323 5,383.438 5,720.565 Inflation, average consumer prices 15.560 11.915 7.357 7.221 6.242 Volume of imports of goods and services 11.913 1.421 14.712 10.371 4.461 Volume of exports of goods and services 15.814 31.097 23.833 1.059 1.592 Unemployment rate 10.600 10.800 11.285 11.241 11.129 Current account balance 15.890 8.234 17.200 14.582 14.611 Current account balance 3.830 2.111 4.172 3.327 3.101
Source: The IMF Statistics - Iran
Luxembourg and the country
Existing conventions and agreements
Non double taxation agreement
In order to promote international economic and financial relations in the interest of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Luxembourg government negotiates bilateral agreements for the avoidance of double taxation and prevent fiscal evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and on fortune with third countries.
Air Services agreement
The Statec Foreign Trade statistics provide information on the trade of goods - by product and by country. This information is collected respectively through the INTRASTAT declaration and on the basis of customs documents.
You can see the statistics on the website of the Statec.
Contact points in Iran
Le Luxembourg est représenté par:
Ambassade Royale des Pays-Bas à Téhéran
Poste compétent pour les affaires consulaires:
Ambassade du Royaume de Belgique à Téhéran
Les demandes de visas pour se rendre au Luxembourg sont à adresser à la représentation de:
Attaché(e) économique et commercial(e) - (FIT)
Ms. Nooshin RAHGOZAR
Flanders Investment and Trade (The Commercial Section of the Belgian Embassy)
2485, Vali-e Asr Ave., after Vanak Square,
Negar Tower, 11th fl., Unit 6,
Tel: 0098 21 88642010 1
Fax: 0098 21 88642012
Country risk as defined by Office du Ducroire for Iran
Ducroire is the only credit insurer covering open account deals in over 200 countries. A rating on a scale from 1 to 7 shows the intensity of the political risk. Category 1 comprises countries with the lowest political risk and category 7 countries with the highest. Macroeconomics experts also assess the repayment climate for all buyers in a country.
Other useful Links
- The CIA World Factbook on Iran
- L'Iran sur le site de l'AWEX
- Présentation de l'Iran par trésor
- Doing Business in Iran
- Iralux, Iran Chamber of Commerce in Luxembourg
- Das ist der Iran
- Economic Freedom Index - Iran
The Chamber of Commerce and the country
- 17.10.2016 - 20.10.2016