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Chambre de Commerce - Fiche d'information pays Dernière mise à jour: 16.01.2018

Vos conseillers à la Chambre de Commerce

  • Edith Stein
  • Daniel Sahr
Contactez-nous: middleeast@cc.lu

Indicateurs clés

1,001,450 km2
97,041,072 (July 2017 est.)
Type de gouvernement
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
$332.3 billion (2016 est.)
Taux de croissance
4.3% (2016 est.)



The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 elevated Egypt as an important world transportation hub. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty from Britain in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.

Inspired by the 2010 Tunisian revolution, Egyptian opposition groups led demonstrations and labor strikes countrywide, culminating in President Hosni MUBARAK's ouster. Egypt's military assumed national leadership until a new parliament was in place in early 2012; later that same year, Mohammed MORSI won the presidential election. Following often violent protests throughout the spring of 2013 against MORSI's government and the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian Armed Forces intervened and removed MORSI from power in July 2013 and replaced him with interim president Adly MANSOUR. In January 2014, voters approved a new constitution by referendum and in May 2014 elected Abdel Fattah EL SISI president. Egypt elected a new legislature in December 2015, the first parliament since 2012.

Source: The CIA World Factbook - Egypt


Indicateurs macroéconomiques

Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK.

Cairo from 2004 to 2008 pursued business climate reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate growth. Poor living conditions and limited job opportunities for the average Egyptian contribute to public discontent, a major factor leading to the January 2011 revolution that ousted MUBARAK. The uncertain political, security, and policy environment since 2011 caused economic growth to slow significantly, hurting tourism, manufacturing, and other sectors and pushing up unemployment.

Weak growth and limited foreign exchange earnings have made public finances unsustainable, leaving authorities dependent on expensive borrowing for deficit finance and on Gulf allies to help cover the import bill. In 2015, higher levels of foreign investment contributed to a slight rebound in GDP growth after a particularly depressed post-revolution period.

Source: CIA World Factbook - Egypt

IMF Statistics:

Subject Descriptor2007200820092010201120122013
GDP, constant prices, %7.1%7.1%4.6%5.1%1.2%1.7%4%
GDP, current prices, $ (billions)130.3162.4188.6218.4231.8252.7272.9
GDP per capita, current prices, $ (units)1,771.12,160.12,455.82,808.12,922.13,122.93,306.1
Inflation, average consumer prices, %10.9%11.7%16.2%11.7%11.1%11.3%10.7%
Volume of imports of goods and services, %7.8%23.8%-0.6%-4.9%


Volume of exports of goods and services, %11.5%14.7%-5.4%-2.8%-8.5%2.7%8.8%
Unemployment rate, % of total labor force9.2%8.%9.5%8.9%10.4%11.5%11.3%
Current account balance, $ (billions)2.60.8-4.4-4.3-4.4-5.6-6.1
Current account balance, % of GDP2.1%0.5%-2.3%-1.9%-1.9%-2.2%-2.2%


Source: IMF Statistics - Egypt


Le Luxembourg et le pays

Existing conventions and agreements

Non double taxation agreement 

In order to promote international economic and financial relations in the interest of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Luxembourg government negotiates bilateral agreements for the avoidance of double taxation and prevent fiscal evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and on fortune with third countries.


Air Services agreement



Plus d'informations

Foreign Trade

The Statec Foreign Trade statistics provide information on the trade of goods - by product and by country. This information is collected respectively through the INTRASTAT declaration and on the basis of customs documents.

You can see the statistics on the website of the Statec.

Embassy of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in Egypt

Economic and Commercial Attaché (FIT)                                    


Haguer MAGDI 

20, Kamel El Shennawi Street
P. O. Box 37 Garden City
CAIRO 11511

Tel: +20 22 792 38 57
Fax: +20 22 792 38 56
E-mail: cairo(at)fitagency.com

Source: Flander Investment and Trade Agency

Country risk as defined by Office du Ducroire for Egypt

Ducroire is the only credit insurer covering open account deals in over 200 countries. A rating on a scale from 1 to 7 shows the intensity of the political risk. Category 1 comprises countries with the lowest political risk and category 7 countries with the highest. Macroeconomics experts also assess the repayment climate for all buyers in a country.

Link: Ducroire Office - Country Risk for Egypt


Other useful Links